卫星风产品

This is a portal to all Wind products process at Remote Sensing Systems and freely available to the public. We provide daily gridded wind products for each individual satellite instrument listed in the following table. We also provide a monthly merged global wind product which is more suitable for climate research. Additional we process a wind analysis (CCMP V2) based on assimilation of most of the individual satellite wind products listed above, aided by a background field from a global numerical prediction model.

风速(微波辐射尺):

Instrument 运营期
乐动体育足球 1987年 - 至今
乐动体育app下载LDsport 1997 - 2015年
AMSR-2 2012年 - 至今
AMSR-E 2002 - 2011
GMI 2014 - present
sm 2015年 - 至今

风速和方向(极化辐射计和散射仪):

Instrument 运营期
乐动体育app 2003年 - 至今
乐动体育 1999 - 2009年
乐动体育 2003年:4月 - 10月
乐动ldsports 2007年 - 至今

What is Ocean Wind?

风是空气的运动,是由高压和低压系统之间的大气压差异引起的。在陆地上,我们使用称为风速管的仪器来测量表面风速和风向。这些风量计存在于较少人口稠密地区的许多区域和低密度的高密度。但在海洋上,表面风特性的测量远远有限,主要从位于小岛气象站,船上和浮在海洋中的浮标上获得的风速计。由于海洋地区非常大,特别是太平洋,这对这种巨大空间的风特征知识对天气预报,海洋导航和气候研究来说是重要的。这是卫星测量带来最关键的好处的地方。乐动体育官方2.0乐动苹果手机第一种方法之一是使用可见图像来研究云运动并间接确定风速和方向。此方法今天仍在使用中。辐射计和散射计测量是基于来自海面的微波(MW)辐射信号,如下乐动苹果手机乐动体育官方2.0所述。

海风的微波测量

两种类型的微波仪器测量海洋表面风,被动微波辐射计和有源微波散射仪。

海洋表面粗糙度wh辐射计的措施ich we correlate to wind speeds at 10 meters above the water's surface. We can only retrieve wind speeds from radiometers with the exception of the polarimetric radiometer, WindSat, that can measure both wind speed and wind direction. WindSat is the first satellite microwave polarimetric radiometer and was launched in 2003. A typical resolution for radiometer winds is about every 25 km over global oceans. A radiative transfer model and ocean emissivity model is needed to derive the wind speeds from ocean brightness temperatures. We can not obtain winds over land using MW radiometers. The consistent satellite MW radiometer wind speed data record began in 1987 with the launch of the DMSP F08 SSM/I.

这scatterometer is an active instrument and sends a signal to the Earth's surface which reflects off the ocean Bragg waves (these are wind generated surface ripples—capillary waves) on the surface of the larger scale ocean waves. The reflected energy measured by the scatterometer is translated using a geophysical model function into a 10 meter neutral wind speed and direction. Scatterometers typically operate at either C-band (~5GHz frequency) or Ku-band (~14 GHz frequency). With special processing techniques, we can obtain wind speeds and directions every 12 km over the oceans. Scatterometers can also be used to measure sea ice and land ice characteristics. The scatterometers that have been in operation longer than a brief period are ERS-2 (C-band), QuikScat (Ku-band), and ASCAT (C-band). RSS scientists are working on merging these long-term wind vectors into a product for climate study.

It is surprizing how well these two independent and different measurements agree. In 2003, both a radiometer (AMSR) and scatterometer (SeaWinds) were flown on the Midori-2 satellite. Wind speeds from these two instruments showed excellent agreement in rain-free conditions.

RSS风数据产品

1-DEGREE, MONTHLY Wind Speed

我们有merged the wind speed measurements from the many radiometers in operation since 1987, including SSM/I, SSMIS, and WindSat. These data were all processed in a consistent manner using our radiative transfer model and careful instrument intercalibration. The wind speeds from these instruments are used to create a Mean Wind Speed product that is best for use in climate study. This 1-degree, monthly gridded product is further described in the documentMerged Monthly 1-degree Wind Speeds。此风产品可从NETCDF格式提供RSS FTP服务器来自NASA GHRC。我们有浏览图像of mean winds, wind speed anomalies, 12 monthly climatology maps (constructed using 1988 to 2007 data), and a global trend map.

CCMP 4X-Daily VAM分析风领域

通过RSS V7辐射计风,Quikscat和ActoT Scatereper Winds,质量检查的被停泊的浮标风以及ECWMF时期的浮雕模型风田作为背景风,产生了CRID校准的多平台(CCMP)的表面向量风。4维变分析(VAM)用于从输入数据产生完全填充的几乎全局风场。因此,CCMP被认为是第3级海洋矢量风分析产品,由0.25度网格向量风电场的四个地图组成。该产品是原始V1.1 CCMP产品的更新和扩展。RSS已过渡CCMP处理代码以使用我们最新的卫星数据观测运行。所有方法都与原始CCMP产品中使用的方法保持相同,并且大多数CCMP处理代码不变,只有轻微的更改,可以补偿不同的操作系统和编译器。这CCMP V2.0 data are fully described在引用的在线文档和支持文档中。

单个辐射计和散射仪网格二进制数据文件

此外,风速是辐射计二进制网格数据文件中的测量之一,并且在散射计数据文件中也可乐动苹果手机乐动体育官方2.0以在风向上可用。有关详细的产品信息和数据访问,请参阅用于访问数据的每个乐器和快速按钮的任务页面。

Related Data Products

RSS数据用于由其他研究人员创建合并的风产品。乐动帐号注册这些是一些例子:

原本的V1.1交叉校准的多平台海风(CCMP)数据集由Atlas等人制作。1988年至2011年的4倍日常数据文件可从中获得jpl po.daac.。这winds are produced using a 4 dimensional variational analysis to derive wind speeds and directions using RSS wind speeds,原位measurements and ECMWF model data as input.

混合海风数据集是由NOAA NCDC的研究人员产生的。乐动帐号注册该产品使用所有RSS辐射计风速和最佳插值处理,将风合并到每日4倍的产品中。