MSU / AMSU

卫星对地球微波辐射的乐动苹果手机乐动体育官方2.0测量是建立一个长期监测大气温度的精确系统的关键因素。卫星提供的全球覆盖率远远高于可达到的密度in situ观察。原位observations also suffer from non-uniform temporal coverage and undocumented changes in the instrumentation used that can lead to local biases and increased uncertainty.

微波测温

卫星可以通过评估大气中气体的热排放来测量大气温度。分子氧具有一个相对强的吸收线的络合物,接近60ghz。通过选择不同的测量频率,从而获得不同的吸收率值,可以测量不同层大气的发射。RSS研究了3系列卫星微波测深仪的测量,以构建长期、气候质量的大气温度数据集,供科学界使用。3种仪表如下所示乐动体育官方2.0乐动苹果手机

Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)

The Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) operating on NOAA polar-orbiting satellite platforms were the principal sources of satellite temperature profiles from late 1978 to the early 2000's. The MSUs were cross-track scanners that made measurements of microwave radiance in four channels ranging from 50.3 to 57.95 GHz on the lower shoulder of the Oxygen absorption band. These four channels measured the atmospheric temperature in four thick layers spanning the surface through the stratosphere. The were 9 MSUs in total. The last MSU instrument, NOAA-14, ceased reliable operation in 2005.

先进微波测深装置(AMSU)

A series of follow-on instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSUs), began operation in 1998. The AMSU instruments are composed of 2 sub units, AMSU-A and AMSU-B. AMSU-B is a humidity sounder (not discussed further), and AMSU-A is a 15-channel temperature sounder similar to MSU. Of the 15 channels, 11 (Channels 4 through 14) are located in the 60 GHz absorption complex and thus are most closely related to atmospheric temepratures at various heights above the surface. The increased number of channels relative to MSU means that AMSU-A samples the temperature of the atmosphere in a larger number of layers. The AMSU measurement footprints are also smaller than those for MSU, leading to higher spatial resolution. 3 AMSU channels (Channels 5,7,and 9) are closely matched to MSU channels 2,3 and 4. By using these channels,we have extended our climate-quality dataset to the present.

此外,我们还对AMSU通道10-14进行了初步分析,该通道测量平流层温度高于最高MSU通道(通道4)。这些数据集始于1998年中期,在NOAA-15卫星上发射了第一颗AMSU。这些数据集现在已有14年的历史,开始足够长,足以成为研究中上层平流层长期变化的有趣数据。

目前,美国航空航天局共有8台AMSU仪器,5台位于NOAA平台(NOAA-15至NOAA-19),2台位于EUMETSAT平台(Metop-A和Metop-B),一台在NASA AQUA卫星上。

先进技术微波测深仪(ATM)

In the future, the AMSU instruments will be phased out, and replaced with the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011. Measurements made by the ATMS are not yet used in our products. We are working to cross-calibrate ATMS with AMSU so that ATMS measurements can be included in future products.

所有微波测深仪器都是为日常运行天气预报使用而研制的,因此通常不会校准到气候研究所需的精度。只有认真地对MSU、AMSU和ATMS仪器的数据进行校准,包括去除非由于大气温度变化而产生的假信号,才能从MSU和AMSU测量中提取气候质量数据集。乐动体育官方2.0乐动苹果手机

Period of Operation for MSU and AMSU

下图1显示了卫星每月提供有效数据的示例图。此图用于TLS,该图使用MSU通道4和AMSU通道9。由于仪器历史上的微小差异,其他产品的类似图略有不同。例如,NOAA-09卫星上的MSU信道2的故障早于同一卫星上MSU信道4的故障,因此TMT和TLT的对应图将与此处所示不同。
Figure. 1 Plot of which satellites are used for each month to construct the MSU/AMSU TLS dataset.

Microwave Sounding Data Products from RSS

We currently provide a number of data products constructed by merging the MSU and AMSU Data from different satellites together. These include

  • 3个单通道MSU/AMSU数据集(TMT、TTS和TLS),可追溯到1978年底
  • 5 single channel AMSU-only stratospheric datasets (C10, C11, C12, C13, and C14) that begin in mid 1998. These datasets are fairly early in their development process and should be considered preliminary (C10-C12) or experimental (C13 and C14).
  • TLT是一个更复杂的数据集,通过计算在不同地球入射角度下测量值之间的加权差值,以外推MSU通道2和AMSU通道5在大气中较低的测量值。乐动体育官方2.0乐动苹果手机
  • 2个多通道数据集TTT和C25,由单通道数据集的加权组合构成。由于C25是由AMSU通道C10-C13构成的,因此应考虑初步。

以上空气温度测量页面将更详细地讨论每种产品。乐动体育官方2.0乐动苹果手机

参考文献

Mears,C.A.和F.J.Wentz,(2017)利用日效应优化调整的卫星反演对流层低层大气温度数据集《气候杂志》,30(19),7695-7718,doi:10.1175/jcli-d-16-0768.1。

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2016)Sensitivity of satellite-derived tropospheric temperature trends to the diurnal cycle adjustment《气候,29 (10),3629-3646, doi: DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0744.1.

Mears, C. A., F. J. Wentz and P. W. Thorne, (2012)Assessing the Value of Microwave Sounding Unit-Radiosonde Comparisons in Ascertaining Errors in Climate Data Records of Tropospheric Temperatures《地球物理学杂志》。第117(D19)号决议,D19103,doi:10.1029/2012JD017710。

Mears, C. A., F. J. Wentz, P. Thorne and D. Bernie, (2011)用蒙特卡罗估计技术评估MSU和AMSU大气温度变化估计的不确定性, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08112, doi:10.1029/2010JD014954.

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2009)MSU和AMSU微波测深仪rssv3.2对流层下数据集的构建, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 1493-1509.

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz, (2009)MSU和AMSU微波测深仪V3.2大气温乐动体育下载度记录的构建, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 1040-1056.

Mears,C.A.和F.J.Wentz,(2005)The Effect of Drifting Measurement Time on Satellite-Derived Lower Tropospheric Temperature, Science, 309, 1548-1551.

Mears, C. A., M. C. Schabel and F. J. Wentz, (2003)MSU通道2对流层温度记录的再分析《气候杂志》,16(22),3650-3664。

Prabhakara, C., R. Iacovazzi Jr, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu. "Global warming: Estimation from satellite observations"Geophysical Research Letters第27卷(21),3517-3520,2000年。

文尼科夫,K.Y,N.C.Grody,A.Robock,R.J.Stouffer,P.D.Jones和M.D.Goldberg。”地表和对流层温度趋势”Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D03106, 2005.

Prabhakara, C., R. Iaacovazzi, J. M. Yoo, and G. Dalu. "Global Warming: Evidence From Satellite Observations"Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3517-3520, 2000.

傅、Q和C.M.约翰森。”卫星导出对流层温度趋势的垂直依赖性”Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L10703, 2005.

J. R. Christy, R. W. Spencer, W. D. Braswell. "MSU Tropospheric Temperatures: Dataset Construction and Radiosonde Comparisons"Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 17, pp. 1153-1170, 2000.

确认

MSU/AMSU data are produced by Remote Sensing Systems. Over the years, we have received support for the development of this dataset from a number of sources, including NOAA's Office of Global Programs, NOAA's Climate Program Office, and NOAA's Climate Data Record Program. Production of the current dataset (version 3.3) is supported by NOAA's Climate Data Record Program, while improvements to the methods used to produce the dataset are currently supported by NASA's Earth Science Division, which is part of the Science Mission Directorate.

如何引用这些数据

TLT:

TMT:

TTT公司:

TTS和TLS:

Uncertainty Estimates:

无线电探空仪的比较: